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🍒 Antikythera mechanism - Wikipedia

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Antikythera mechanism - Wikipedia


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ancient greek mechanical toys and slot machines The Antikythera mechanism Fragment A — front ; visible is the largest gear in the mechanism, approximately 14 centimetres 5.
It could also be used to track the four-year cycle of athletic games which was similar to anthe cycle of the.
This artefact was retrieved from the read more in 1901, and identified on 17 May 1902 as containing a gear by archaeologistamong wreckage retrieved from a off the coast of the Greek island.
The instrument is believed to have been designed and constructed by and has been variously dated to about 87 BC, or between 150 and 100 BC, or to 205 BC, or to within a generation before the shipwreck, which has been dated to approximately 70—60 BC.
The device, housed in the remains of a 34 cm × 18 cm × 9 cm 13.
Four of these fragments contain gears, while inscriptions are found on many others.
The largest gear is approximately 14 centimetres 5.
It is a complex mechanism composed of at least 30 meshing bronze gears.
A team led by Mike Edmunds and Tony Freeth at used modern computer and high resolution surface scanning to image inside fragments of the crust-encased mechanism and read the faintest inscriptions that once covered the outer casing of the ancient greek mechanical toys and slot machines />Detailed imaging of the mechanism suggests that it had 37 gear wheels enabling it to follow the movements of the Moon and the Sun through the zodiac, to predict eclipses and even to model thewhere the Moon's velocity is higher in its.
This motion was studied in the 2nd century BC by astronomer ofand it is speculated that he may have been consulted in the machine's construction.
The knowledge of this technology was lost at some point inand technological works approaching its complexity and workmanship did not appear again until the development of mechanical in Europe in the fourteenth century.
This wreck of a Roman cargo ship was found at a depth of 45 metres 148 ft off Point Glyphadia on the Greek island of.
The team retrieved numerous large artefacts, including bronze and marble statues, pottery, unique glassware, jewellery, coins, and the mechanism.
The mechanism was retrieved from the wreckage in 1901, most probably in July of that year.
It is not known how the mechanism came to be on the cargo ship, but it has been suggested that it visit web page being taken from totogether with other looted treasure, to support a being staged by.
All of the items retrieved from the wreckage were transferred to the National Museum of Archaeology in Athens for storage and analysis.
The mechanism appeared at the time to be little more than a lump of corroded bronze and wood; it went unnoticed for two years, while museum staff worked on piecing together more obvious treasures, such as the statues.
On 17 May 1902, found that one of the pieces of rock had a gear wheel embedded in it.
He initially believed that it was an astronomical clock, but most scholars considered the device to betoo complex to have been constructed during the same period as the other pieces that had been discovered.
Investigations into the object were dropped until British science historian and Yale University professor became interested in it in 1951.
In 1971, Price and Greek nuclear physicist Charalampos Karakalos made X-ray and of the 82 fragments.
Price published an extensive 70-page paper on their findings in 1974.
Two other searches for items at the Antikythera wreck site in 2012 and 2015 have yielded a number of fascinating art objects and a second ship which may or may not be connected with the treasure ship on which the Mechanism was found.
Also found was a bronze disk, with the image of a bull embellished on it.
The disk has four "ears" which have holes in them, and it was thought by some that it may have been part of the Antikythera Mechanism itself, as a "".
However, there appears to be little evidence that it was part of the Mechanism; it is https://deposit-free-slots.website/and-slot/free-slots-no-deposit-bet-and-skills.html likely that the disk was a bronze decoration on a piece of furniture.
The quality and complexity of the mechanism's manufacture suggests that it must have had undiscovered predecessors made during the.
Its construction relied on theories of astronomy and mathematics developed by Greek astronomers during the second century BC, and it is estimated to have been built in the late second century BC or the early first century BC.
In 1974, Derek de Solla Price concluded from gear settings and inscriptions on the mechanism's faces that it was made about 87 BC and lost only a few years later.
The mechanism's advanced state of corrosion has made it impossible to perform an accuratebut it is believed that the device was made of a low-tin alloy of https://deposit-free-slots.website/and-slot/free-keno-and-slots.html 95% copper, 5% tin.
Its instructions were composed in.
In 2008, continued research by the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project suggested that the concept for the mechanism may have originated in the colonies ofsince they identified the calendar on the Spiral as coming from Corinth or one of its colonies in Northwest Greece or Sicily.
However, it has recently been demonstrated that the calendar on the Metonic Spiral is indeed of the Corinthian type but cannot be that of Syracuse.
Another theory suggests that coins found by Jacques Cousteau at the wreck site in the 1970s date to the time of the device's construction, and posits that its origin may have been from the ancient Greek city ofhome of the.
With its many scrolls of art and science, it was second in importance only to the during the Hellenistic period.
The ship carrying the device also contained vases in the style, leading to a hypothesis that it was constructed at an academy founded by philosopher on that Greek island.
Rhodes was a busy trading port in antiquity and a centre of astronomy and ancient greek mechanical toys and slot machines engineering, home to astronomer who was active from about 140 BC to 120 BC.
The mechanism uses Hipparchus's theory for the motion of the Moon, which suggests the possibility that he may have designed it or at least worked on it.
In addition, it has recently been argued that the astronomical events on the of the Antikythera And 4 back to muffin egg tem4500 toaster basics slot work best for latitudes in the range of 33.
In 2014, a study by Carman and Evans argued for a new dating of approximately 200 BC based on identifying the start-up date on the as the astronomical lunar month that began shortly after the new moon of 28 April 205 BC.
Moreover, according to Carman and Evans, the Babylonian arithmetic style of prediction fits much better with the device's predictive models than the traditional Greek trigonometric style.
A study by Paul Iversen published in 2017 reasons that the prototype for the device was indeed from Rhodes, but that this particular model was modified for a client from Epirus in northwestern Greece; Iversen argues that it was probably constructed no earlier than a generation before the shipwreck.
Further dives were undertaken in 2014, with plans to continue in 2015, in the hope of discovering more of the mechanism.
Soon afterward it fractured into three major pieces.
Other small pieces have broken off in the interim from cleaning and handling, and still others were found on the sea floor by the Cousteau expedition.
Other fragments may still be in storage, undiscovered since their initial recovery; Fragment F came to light in that way in 2005.
Of the 82 known fragments, seven are mechanically significant and contain the majority of the mechanism and inscriptions.
There are also 16 smaller parts that contain fractional and incomplete inscriptions.
Clearly visible on the front is the large b1 gear, and under closer inspection further gears behind said gear parts of the l, m, c, and d trains are clearly visible as gears to the naked eye.
The crank mechanism socket and the side-mounted gear that meshes with b1 is on Fragment A.
The back of the fragment contains the rearmost e and k gears for synthesis of the moon anomaly, noticeable also is the pin and slot mechanism of the k train.
It is noticed from detailed scans of the fragment that all gears are very closely packed and have sustained damage and displacement due to their years in the sea.
The fragment is approximately 30 mm thick at its thickest point.
Fragment A also contains divisions of the upper left quarter of the Saros spiral and 14 inscriptions from said spiral.
The fragment also contains inscriptions for the Exeligmos dial and visible on the back surface the remnants of the dial face.
Finally, this fragment contains some read more door inscriptions.
The Metonic scale would have consisted of 235 cells of which 49 have been deciphered from fragment B either in whole or partially.
The rest so far are assumed from knowledge of the.
This fragment also contains a single gear o1 used in the Olympic train.
C 120 × 110 63.
This fragment also contains the Moon indicator dial assembly including the Moon phase sphere in its housing and a single bevel gear ma1 used in the Moon phase indication system.
Their purpose and position has not been ascertained to any accuracy or consensus, but lends to the debate for the possible planet displays on the face of the mechanism.
It also contains remnants of the mechanism's wooden housing.
G 125 × 110 31.
Fragment 19 contains significant back door inscriptions including one reading ".
Other inscriptions seem to describe the function of the back dials.
In addition to this important minor fragment, 15 further minor fragments have remnants of inscriptions on them.
This matched with the Babylonian custom of assigning one twelfth of the ecliptic to each zodiac sign equally, even though the boundaries were variable.
Outside of that dial is another ring which is rotatable, marked off with the months and days of the Sothictwelve months of 30 days plus five.
The months are marked with the Egyptian names for the months transcribed into the.
The first task, ancient greek mechanical toys and slot machines, is to rotate the Egyptian calendar ring to match the current zodiac points.
The Egyptian calendar ignored leap days, so it advanced through a full zodiac sign in about 120 years.
The mechanism was operated by turning a small hand crank now lost which was linked via a to the largest gear, the four-spoked gear visible on the front of fragment A, the gear named b1.
This moved the date pointer on the front dial, which would be set to the correct Egyptian calendar day.
The year is not selectable, so it is necessary to know the year currently set, or by looking up the cycles indicated by the various calendar cycle indicators on the back in the Babylonian tables for the day of crossfire slot 1 and 3 year currently set, since most of the calendar cycles are not synchronous with the year.
The crank moves the date pointer about 78 days per full rotation, so hitting a particular day on the dial would be easily possible if the mechanism were in good working condition.
The action of turning the hand crank would also cause all interlocked gears within the mechanism to rotate, resulting in the simultaneous calculation of the position of the andthe, and calendar cycles, and perhaps the locations of.
The operator also had to be aware of the position of the spiral dial pointers on the two large dials on the back.
The pointer had a "follower" that tracked the spiral incisions in the metal as the dials incorporated four and five full rotations of the pointers.
When a pointer reached the terminal month location at either end of the spiral, the pointer's follower had to be manually moved to the other end of the spiral before proceeding further.
The outer ring is marked off with the days of the 365-day.
On the inner ring, a second dial marks the Greek signs of thewith division into degrees.
The dials are not believed to reflect his proposed 6but the outer calendar dial may be moved against the inner dial to compensate for the effect of the extra quarter day in the solar year by turning the scale backward one day every four years.
The position of the Sun on the ecliptic corresponds to the current date in the year.
The orbits of the Moon and the five planets known to the Greeks are close enough to the ecliptic to make it a convenient reference for defining their positions as well.
They are keyed to aa precursor of the modern day inscribed on the front face above and beneath the dials.
They mark the locations of longitudes on the ecliptic for specific stars.
A lunar pointer indicated the position of the Moon, and a mean Sun pointer also was shown, perhaps doubling as the current date pointer.
The Moon position was not a simple mean Moon indicator that would indicate movement uniformly around a circular orbit; it approximated the acceleration and deceleration of the Moon's elliptical orbit, through the earliest extant use of.
It also tracked the precession of the elliptical orbit around the ecliptic in an 8.
The mean Sun position is, by definition, the current date.
It is speculated that since such pains were taken to get the position of the Moon correct, : 20, 24 then there also was likely to have been a "true sun" pointer in addition to the mean Sun pointer likewise, to track the elliptical anomaly of the Sun the orbit of Earth around the Sunbut there is no evidence of it among the ruins of the mechanism found to date.
Similarly, neither is there the evidence of planetary orbit pointers for the five planets known to the Greeks among the ruins.
Finally, mechanical engineer Michael Wright has demonstrated that there was a mechanism to supply the lunar phase in addition to the position.
The indicator was a small ball embedded in the lunar pointer, half-white and half-black, which rotated to show the phase new, first quarter, half, third quarter, full, and back graphically.
The data to support this function is available given the Sun and Moon positions as angular rotations; essentially, it is the angle between the two, translated into the rotation of the ball.
It requires aa gearing arrangement that sums or differences two angular inputs.
Inscriptions on the instrument closely match the names of the months that are used on calendars from in northwestern Greece and with the island ofwhich in antiquity was known as Corcyra.
On the back of the mechanism, there are five dials: the two large displays, the and theand three smaller indicators, the so-called Olympiad Dial, which has recently been renamed the Games dial as it did not track Olympiad years the four-year cycle it tracks most closely is the Halieiadtheand the.
The Metonic cycle, defined in several physical units, is 235which is very close to within less than 13 one-millionths to 19 tropical years.
It is therefore a convenient interval over which to convert between lunar and solar calendars.
The Metonic dial covers 235 months in five rotations of the dial, following a spiral track with a follower on the pointer that keeps track of the layer of the spiral.
The pointer points to the synodic month, counted from new moon to new moon, and the cell contains the.
Based on the fact that the calendar month names are consistent with all the evidence of the Epirote calendar and that the Games dial mentions the very minor Naa games of Dodona in Epirusit has recently been argued that the calendar on the Antikythera Mechanism is likely to be the Epirote calendar, and that this calendar was probably adopted from a Corinthian colony in Epirus, possibly Ambracia.
It has also been argued that the first month of the calendar, Phoinikaios, was ideally the month in which the autumn equinox fell, and that the start-up date of the calendar began shortly after the astronomical new moon of 23 August 205 BC.
The Callippic dial is the left secondary upper dial, which follows a 76-year cycle.
The is four Metonic cycles, and so this dial indicates the current Metonic cycle in the overall Callippic cycle.
The dial is divided into four sectors, each of which is inscribed with a year indicator and the name of two : the "crown" games of,and ; and two lesser games: Naa held atand the sixth and final set of Games recently deciphered as the Halieia of Rhodes.
The inscriptions on each one of the four divisions are: Olympic dial Year of the cycle Inside the dial inscription Outside the dial inscription 1 LΑ ΙΣΘΜΙΑ Isthmia ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ Olympia 2 LΒ ΝΕΜΕΑ Nemea NAA Naa 3 LΓ ΙΣΘΜΙΑ Isthmia ΠΥΘΙΑ Pythia 4 LΔ ΝΕΜΕΑ Nemea ΑΛΙΕΙΑ Halieia The Saros dial is the main lower spiral dial on the rear of the mechanism.
It is defined ancient greek mechanical toys and slot machines the cycle of repetition of the positions required to cause solar and lunar eclipses, and therefore, it could be used to predict them — not only the month, but the day and time of day.
Note that the cycle is approximately 8 hours longer than an integer number of days.
Translated into global spin, that means an eclipse occurs not only eight hours later, but one-third of a rotation farther to the west.
Glyphs in 51 of the 223 synodic month cells of the dial specify the occurrence of 38 lunar and 27 solar eclipses.
Based on the distribution of the times of the eclipses, it has recently been argued that the start-up date of the Saros dial was shortly after the astronomical new moon of 28 April 205 BC.
The Exeligmos Dial is the secondary lower dial on the rear of the mechanism.
The cycle is a 54-year triple Saros cycle that is 19,756 days long.
Since the length of the Saros cycle is to a third of a day eight hoursso a full Exeligmos cycle returns counting to integer days, hence the inscriptions.
The back door appears to be the "instruction manual".
On one of its fragments is written "76 years, 19 years" representing the and cycles.
Also written is "223" for the Saros cycle.
On another one of its fragments, it is written "on the spiral subdivisions 235" referring to the Metonic dial.
It has at least 30 gears, although mechanism expert Michael Wright has suggested that the Greeks of this period were capable of implementing a system with many more gears.
There is much debate as to whether the mechanism had indicators for all five of the planets known to the ancient Greeks.
No gearing for such a planetary display survives and all gears are accounted for—with the exception of one 63-toothed gear r1 otherwise unaccounted for in fragment D.
The purpose of the front face was to position astronomical bodies with respect to the along thein reference to the observer's position on the Earth.
That is irrelevant to the question of whether that position was computed using a heliocentric or geocentric view of the solar system; either computational method should, and does, result in the same position ignoring ellipticitywithin the error factors of the mechanism.
The epicyclic Solar System of c.
Tony Freeth and Alexander Jones have modelled and published details of a version using several gear trains mechanically-similar to the lunar anomaly system allowing for indication of the positions of the planets as well as check this out of the Sun anomaly.
Their system, they claim, is more authentic than Wright's model as it uses the known skill sets of the Greeks of that period and does not add excessive complexity or internal stresses to the machine.
The gear teeth were in the form of with an average circular pitch of 1.
The teeth probably were created from a blank bronze round using hand tools; this is evident because not all of them are even.
Due to advances in imaging and technology it is now possible to know the precise number of teeth and size of the gears within the located fragments.
Thus the basic operation of the device is no longer a mystery and has been replicated accurately.
The major unknown remains the question of the presence and nature of any planet indicators.
The gear functions come from Freeth et al.
The B axis is the axis with gears B3 and B6, while the E axis is the axis with gears E3 and E4.
As viewed on the front of the Mechanism.
There are several gear ratios for each planet that result in close matches to the correct values for synodic periods of the planets and the Sun.
The ones chosen above seem to provide good accuracy with reasonable tooth counts, but the specific gears that may have been used are, and probably will remain, unknown.
Based also upon similar drawing in the Freeth 2006 Supplement and Wright 2005, Epicycles Part 2.
Proposed as opposed to known from the artefact gearing crosshatched.
It is very probable that there were planetary dials, as the complicated motions and periodicities of all planets are mentioned in the manual of the mechanism.
The exact position and mechanisms for the gears of the planets is not known.
There is no coaxial system but only for the Moon.
Fragment D that is an epicycloidal system is considered as a planetary gear for Jupiter Moussas, 2011, 2012, 2014 or a gear for the motion of the Sun University of Thessaloniki group.
The Sun gear is operated from the hand-operated crank connected to gear a1, driving the large four-spoked mean Sun gear, b1 and in turn drives the rest of the gear sets.
In this discussion, reference is to modelled rotational period of various pointers and indicators; they all assume the input rotation of the b1 gear of 360 degrees, corresponding with one tropical year, and are computed solely on the basis of the gear ratios of the gears named.
The Moon train starts with gear b1 and proceeds through c1, c2, d1, d2, e2, e5, k1, k2, e6, e1, and b3 to the Moon pointer on the front face.
The gears k1 and k2 form an ; they are an identical pair of gears that don't mesh, but rather, they operate face-to-face, with a short pin on k1 inserted into a slot in k2.
The two gears have different centres of rotation, so the pin must move back and forth in the slot.
That increases and decreases the radius at which k2 is driven, also necessarily varying its angular velocity presuming the velocity of k1 is even faster in some parts of the rotation than others.
Over an entire revolution the average velocities are the same, but the fast-slow variation models the effects of the elliptical orbit of the Moon, in consequence of.
The modelled rotational period of the Moon pointer averaged over a year is 27.
The system also models the.
The gear rides around the dial with the Moon, but is also geared to the Sun — the effect is to perform a operation, so the gear turns at the synodic month period, measuring in effect, the angle of the difference between the Sun and Moon pointers.
The gear drives a small ball that appears through an opening in the Moon pointer's face, painted longitudinally half white and half black, displaying the phases pictorially.
It turns with a modelled rotational period of 29.
The train is driven by the drive train b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m2, and n1, which is connected to the pointer.
The modelled rotational period of the pointer is the length of the 6939.
The train is driven by b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m2, n1, n2, and o1, which mounts the pointer.
It has a computed modelled rotational period of exactly four years, as expected.
Incidentally, it is the only pointer on the mechanism that rotates counter-clockwise; all of the others rotate clockwise.
The train is driven by b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m2, n1, n3, p1, p2, and q1, which mounts the pointer.
It has a computed modelled rotational period of 27758 days, while the modern value is 27758.
The train is driven by b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m3, e3, e4, f1, f2, and g1, which mounts the pointer.
The modelled rotational period of the Saros pointer is 1646.
The train is driven by b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m3, e3, e4, f1, f2, g1, g2, h1, h2, and i1, which mounts the pointer.
The modelled rotational period of the Exeligmos pointer is 19,756 days; the modern value is 19755.
Apparently, gears m3, n1-3, p1-2, and q1 did not survive in the wreckage.
The functions of the pointers were deduced from the remains of the dials on the back face, and reasonable, appropriate gearage to fulfill the functions was proposed, and is generally accepted.
This lack of evidence and nature of the front part of the mechanism has led to numerous attempts to emulate what the Greeks of the period would have done and, of course, because of the lack of evidence many solutions have been put forward.
He suggested that along with the lunar anomaly, adjustments would have been made for the deeper, more basic solar anomaly known as the "first anomaly".
He included pointers for this "true sun", Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, in addition to the known "mean sun" current time and lunar pointers.
Evans, Carman, and Thorndike published a solution with significant differences from Wright's.
Their proposal centred on what they observed as irregular spacing of the inscriptions on the front dial face, which to them seemed to indicate an off-centre sun indicator arrangement; this would simplify the mechanism by removing the need to simulate the solar anomaly.
They also suggested that rather than accurate planetary indication rendered impossible by the offset inscriptions there would be simple dials for each individual planet showing information such as key events in the cycle of planet, initial and final appearances in the night sky, and apparent direction changes.
This system would lead to a much simplified gear system, with much reduced forces and complexity, as compared click Wright's model.
Their proposal used simple meshed gear trains and accounted for the previously unexplained 63 toothed gear in fragment D.
They proposed two face plate layouts, one with evenly spaced dials, and another with a gap in the top of the face to account for criticism regarding their not using the apparent fixtures on the b1 gear.
They proposed that rather than bearings and pillars for gears and axles, they simply held weather and seasonal icons to be displayed through a window.
In a paper published in 2012 Carman, Thorndike, and Evans also proposed a system of epicyclic gearing with pin and slot followers.
Freeth and Jones published their proposal in 2012 after extensive research and work.
They came up with a compact and feasible solution to the question of olg slots and casino indication.
They also propose indicating the solar anomaly that is, the sun's apparent position in the zodiac dial on a separate pointer from the date pointer, which indicates the mean position of the Sun, as well as the date on the month dial.
If the two dials are synchronised correctly, their front panel display is essentially the same as Wright's.
Unlike Wright's model however, this model has not been built physically, and is only a 3-D computer model.
Internal gearing relationships of the Antikythera Mechanism, based on the Freeth and Jones proposal The system to synthesise the solar anomaly is very similar to that used in Wright's proposal.
Three gears, one fixed in the centre of the b1 gear and attached to the Sun spindle, the second fixed on one of the spokes in their proposal the one on the bottom left acting as an idle gear, and the final positioned next to that one, the final gear is fitted with an offset pin and, over said pin, an arm with a slot that in turn, is attached to the sun spindle, inducing anomaly as the mean Sun wheel turns.
The inferior planet mechanism includes the Sun treated as a planet in this contextMercury, and Venus.
For each of the three systems there is an epicyclic gear whose axis is mounted on b1, thus the basic frequency is the Earth year as it is, in truth, for epicyclic motion in the Sun and all the planets—excepting only the Moon.
Each meshes with a gear grounded to the mechanism frame.
Each has a pin mounted, potentially on an extension of one side of the gear that enlarges the gear, but doesn't interfere with the teeth; in some cases the needed distance between the gear's centre and the pin is farther than the radius of the gear itself.
A bar with a slot along its length extends from the pin toward the appropriate coaxial tube, at whose other end is the object pointer, out in front of the front dials.
The bars could have been please click for source gears, although there is no need for the waste of metal, since the only working part is the slot.
Also, using the bars avoids interference between the three mechanisms, each of which are set on one of the four spokes of b1.
Five gears and three slotted bars in all.
The superior planet systems—Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn—all follow the same general principle of the lunar anomaly mechanism.
Similar to the inferior systems, each has a gear whose centre pivot is on an extension of b1, and which meshes with a grounded gear.
It presents a pin and a centre pivot for the epicyclic gear which has a slot for the pin, and which meshes with a gear fixed to a coaxial tube and thence to the pointer.
Each of the three mechanisms can fit within a quadrant of the b1 extension, and they are thus all on a single plane parallel with the front dial plate.
In total, there are eight coaxial spindles of various nested sizes to transfer the rotations in the mechanism to the eight pointers.
So in all, there are 30 original gears, seven gears added to complete calendar functionality, 17 gears and three slotted bars to support the six new pointers, for a grand total of 54 gears, three bars, and eight pointers in Freeth and Jones' design.
On the visual representation Freeth supplies in the paper, the pointers on the front zodiac dial have small, round identifying stones.
He mentions a quote from an ancient papyrus:.
This is not due to inaccuracies in gearing ratios in the mechanism, but rather to inadequacies in the Greek theory.
The accuracy could not have been improved until first Ptolemy put forth his in the second half of the second century AD and then the introduction of in the early 17th century.
In short, the Antikythera Mechanism was a machine designed to predict celestial phenomena according to the sophisticated astronomical theories current in its day, the sole witness to a lost history of brilliant engineering, a conception of pure genius, one of the great wonders of the ancient world—but it didn't really work very well!
In addition to theoretical accuracy, there is the matter of mechanical accuracy.
Freeth and Jones note that the inevitable "looseness" in the mechanism due to the hand-built gears, with their triangular teeth and the frictions between gears, and in bearing surfaces, probably would have swamped the finer solar and lunar correction mechanisms built into it: Though the engineering was remarkable for its era, recent research indicates that its design conception exceeded the engineering precision of its manufacture by a wide margin—with considerable cumulative inaccuracies in the gear trains, which would have cancelled out many of the subtle anomalies built into its design.
While the device itself may have struggled with inaccuracies due to the triangular teeth being hand made, the calculations used and the technology implemented to create the elliptical paths of the planets and retrograde motion of the Moon and Mars by using a clockwork-type gear train with the addition of a pin-and-slot mechanism predated that of the first known clocks found in in Medieval Europe by more than 1000 years.
Archimedes' development of the approximate value of pi and his theory of centres of gravity along with the steps he made towards developing the calculus all suggest that the Greeks had access to more than enough mathematical knowledge beyond that of just Babylonian algebra in order to be able to model the elliptical nature of planetary motion.
Of special delight to physicists, the Moon mechanism uses a special train of bronze gears, two of them linked with a slightly offset axis, to indicate the position and phase of the moon.
As is known today fromthe moon travels at different speeds as it orbits the Earth, and this speed differential is modeled by the Antikythera Mechanism, even though the were not aware of the actual elliptical shape of the orbit.
They were both built by and brought to Rome by the Roman general after the death of Archimedes at the in 212 BC.
Marcellus had great respect for Archimedes and one of these machines was the only item he kept from the siege the second was placed in the.
The device was kept as a family heirloom, and Cicero has Philus one of the participants in a conversation that Cicero imagined had taken place in a villa belonging to in the year 129 BC saying that consul with in 166 BC, and credited by as the first Roman to have written a book explaining solar and lunar eclipses gave both a "learned explanation" and a working demonstration of the device.
Its appearance, however, did not seem to me particularly striking.
There is another, more elegant in form, and more generally known, moulded by the same Archimedes, and deposited by the same Marcellus, in the Temple of Virtue at Rome.
But as soon as Gallus had begun to explain, by his sublime science, the composition of this machine, I felt that the Sicilian geometrician must have possessed a genius superior to any thing we usually conceive to belong to our nature.
Gallus assured us, that the solid and compact globe, was a very ancient invention, and that the first model of it had been presented by.
That afterwardsa disciple ofhad traced on its surface the stars that appear in the sky, and that many years subsequent, borrowing from Eudoxus this beautiful design and representation, Aratus had illustrated them in his verses, not by any science of astronomy, but the ornament of poetic description.
He added, that the figure of the sphere, which displayed the motions of the Sun and Moon, and the five planets, or wandering stars, could not be represented by the primitive solid globe.
And that in this, the invention of Archimedes was admirable, because he had calculated how a single revolution should maintain unequal and diversified progressions in dissimilar motions.
When Gallus moved this globe it showed the relationship of the Moon with the Sun, and there were exactly the same number of turns on the bronze device as the number of days in the real globe of the sky.
It showed both solar and lunar eclipses.
The surviving texts from the describe many of his creations, some even containing simple drawings.
One such device is histhe exact model later used by the Romans to place their described byand in the time of Emperor.
The drawings in the text appeared functional, but attempts to build them as pictured had failed.
When the gears pictured, which had square teeth, were replaced with gears of the type in the Antikythera mechanism, which were angled, the device was perfectly functional.
Whether this is an example of a device created by Archimedes and described by texts lost in the burning of theor if it is a device based on his discoveries, or if it has anything to do with him at all, is debatable.
If Cicero's account is correct, then this technology existed as early as the 3rd century BC.
Archimedes' device is also mentioned by later Roman era writers such as Divinarum Institutionum Libri VIIIn sphaeram Archimedesand Commentary on the first book of Euclid's Elements of Geometry in the 4th and 5th centuries.
Cicero also said that another such device was built "recently" by his friend".
The scientists who have reconstructed the Antikythera mechanism also agree that it was too sophisticated to have been a unique device.
This evidence that the Antikythera mechanism was not unique adds support to the idea that there was an ancient Greek tradition of complex mechanical technology that was later, at least in part, transmitted to the Byzantine andwhere mechanical devices which were complex, albeit simpler than the Antikythera mechanism, were built during the.
Fragments of a geared calendar attached to a sundial, from the 5th or 6th centuryhave been found; the calendar may have been used to assist in telling time.
In the Islamic world, 'sor Book of Ingenious Devices, was commissioned by the in the early 9th century AD.
This text described over a hundred mechanical devices, some of which may date back to ancient Greek texts preserved in.
A geared calendar similar to the Byzantine device was described by the scientist around 1000, and a surviving 13th-century also contains a similar clockwork device.
It is possible that this medieval technology may have been transmitted to Europe and contributed to the development of mechanical clocks there.
As of 2012the Antikythera mechanism was displayed as part of a https://deposit-free-slots.website/and-slot/and-slot-casino-online.html exhibition about the Antikythera Shipwreck, accompanied by reconstructions made by, Michael Wright, the Thessaloniki University and Dionysios Kriaris.
Other reconstructions are on display at the inat the in New York, at Astronomisch-Physikalisches Kabinett inGermany, and at the in.
The National Geographic documentary series had an episode dedicated to the Antikythera Mechanism entitled "Star Clock BC" that aired on 20 January 2011.
A documentary, The World's First Computer, was produced in 2012 by the Antikythera mechanism researcher and film-maker Tony Freeth.
In 2012 aired The Two-Thousand-Year-Old Computer; it was also aired on 3 April 2013 in the United States onthe science series, under the name Ancient Computer.
It documents the discovery and 2005 investigation of the mechanism by the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project.
A fully functioning reconstruction of the Antikythera mechanism was built in 2010 by hobbyist Andy Carrol, and featured in a short film produced by Small Mammal in 2011.
Several exhibitions have been staged worldwide, leading to the main "Antikythera shipwreck" exhibition at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, Greece.
A fictionalised version of the device was a central plot point in the film 2010where it was used as the artefact that saved the world from impending doom.
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The Antikythera Mechanism is now understood to be dedicated to astronomical phenomena and operates as a complex mechanical 'computer' which tracks the cycles of the Solar System.
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It was a mechanical computer for calculating lunar, solar, and stellar calendars.
Imagine tossing a top-notch laptop into the sea, leaving scientists from a foreign culture to scratch their heads over its corroded remains centuries later.
A Roman shipmaster inadvertently did something just like it 2,000 years ago off southern Greece, experts said late Thursday.
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This remarkable assembly of more than 30 gears with a differential.
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Mecard Full Episodes 1-8


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Ancient Greek engineers developed war machines such as the catapult, which evolved from the crossbow and were the forerunners of modern artillery. by Mike Markowitz. When we think “catapult,” we imagine huge medieval contraptions hurling rocks, dead plague victims, or unlucky cows against a castle.


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